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Conditions of Sale for our Auctions

Abbreviations/Descriptions Used In Our Auction Sales



            *              unused with original gum unless described otherwise
            NH          never hinged
            s.e.          straight edge
            S             specimen
            P             proof
            o.g.         original gum
            XF          Extra Fine. Exceptional in all respects.
            VF          Very Fine. Well centered.
            F-VF       Fine to Very Fine. Slightly off center perfs well clear of design
            Fine        Fine. Off center, Perfs clear of design.
            VG         Perfs cut design.
            E             essay
            A            artwork

            Faults are always specifically mentioned, e.g., thins, tears, creases, etc.



The description of a cover in our catalog is written in a consistent systematic manner. By carefully reading the description, one can determine all of the important aspects of the cover. For example, whether transit and arrival marks are on the front or back, type of registration marking, etc. The schematic below explains the details of our system.

All markings are in black and easily readable unless otherwise stated. Normal file folds on early letter sheets and covers opened for display are generally not described unless they affect the stamp, a significant postal marking, or are severe. Postmarks are always spelled out exactly as they appear in the cancel. Postmarks in lower case or in a non-Roman alphabet are enclosed in quotation marks.

            ELS        entire letter sheet complete with original contents
LS           letter sheet (no contents)
f.w.          franked with
cds          circular date stamp
d.s.          date stamp
h.s.          hand stamp
s.l.           straight line
FDC        first day cover
FFC         first flight cover
H&G      Higgins & Gage
Vl.           Vlastos
Mi.          Michel
Yv.          Yvert
cto           cancelled to order
tpo           travelling post office
f.a.c.        forwarding agent cachet
regis.       registered
ms.          manuscript


            PR          prices realized
            HB          hardbound
            SB          softbound
            LL           looseleaf
            PH          photocopy
            ed            edition

CURRENCY CONVERSION. For your convenience, when foreign currencies are used in our descriptions we give both the original currency and a conversion into U.S. dollars. For this sale the following rates were used: British pound, 1.00=$1.50; German mark, DM1.00=$0.50; French franc, FF1.00=$0.15; Japanese yen, Y100=$1; Greek drachma, D350=$1, Swedish kroner, SK1=$0.13; Italian lira, L2000=$1; Swiss franc, SF1.00=$0.60